Recent Publications

Who is in Charge? Natural Friction in the CSDP Decision-Making Process

Mattelaer, A. 2014 Handbook for Decision-Makers: The Common Security and Defence Policy of the European Union. Rehrl, J. (ed.). Vienna: Directorate for Security Policy of the Federal Ministry of Defence and Sports of the Republic of Austria, p. 48-51 4 p.

Research output: ResearchChapter

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationHandbook for Decision-Makers
Subtitle of host publicationThe Common Security and Defence Policy of the European Union
EditorsJochen Rehrl
Place of PublicationVienna
PublisherDirectorate for Security Policy of the Federal Ministry of Defence and Sports of the Republic of Austria
Number of pages4
ISBN (Print)987-3-902275-35-6
StatePublished - 2014

Strategic Insurance: The Future of the Belgian Armed Forces.

Mattelaer, A. 2014 Brussels: Institute for European Studies. (IES Policy Brief 2014/04)

Research output: ResearchOther report

Original languageEnglish
Place of PublicationBrussels
PublisherInstitute for European Studies
StatePublished - 2014

Publication series

NameIES Policy Brief 2014/04

Preparing NATO for the Next Defence-Planning Cycle.

Mattelaer, A. 2014 In : RUSI Journal. 159, p. 30-35 6 p.

Research output: Research - peer-reviewArticle

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)30-35
Number of pages6
JournalRUSI Journal
StatePublished - 2014

Planning and launching military operations.

Mattelaer, A. 2014 In : Expert panel report on the EUMS & EU-ISS conference 'Learning by doing: military lessons learnt within the comprehensive approach', Brussels, 19-20 June 2014.

Research output: ResearchEditorial

Original languageEnglish
JournalExpert panel report on the EUMS & EU-ISS conference 'Learning by doing: military lessons learnt within the comprehensive approach', Brussels, 19-20 June 2014
StatePublished - 2014

Interview with General Jean-Paul Perruche.

Mattelaer, A. & Fiott, D. 19 Dec 2013 In : European Geostrategy.

Research output: ResearchOther scientific journal contribution

Original languageEnglish
JournalEuropean Geostrategy
StatePublished - 19 Dec 2013
November 2013

Included in issue 43:

  • PhD Defences of Claire Dupont and Radostina Primova
  • Details of 3 new Policy Briefs
  • IES in the Media and Social Media
  • Launch of the revamped IES e-learning modules
  • The Autumn Lecture Series ‘EU Economic Law in a Time of Crisis’ gets underway


Download the newsletter to read more.

Jorge Torres Hidalgo

The use of export restrictions has become more and more common in recent years, evidencing the substantial loopholes existing in the WTO regulation on the matter. As a result of this deficient legal framework, the WTO membership experiences important losses of welfare and increasing political tensions. The multilateral negotiations for an updated discipline on export restrictions, in the context of the Doha Development Round, are blocked. Consequently, members have established a set of preferential bilateral and multilateral agreements to relieve the negative effects of these measures. Likewise, some recent WTO members have committed to stricter regulations as part of their Accession Protocols. Nevertheless, these methods have evidenced some important flaws, and the multilateral scene remains the optimum forum to address export restrictions. This Working Paper proposes a number of measures to improve the legal framework of the quantitative export restrictions and export duties, as well as their notification procedures.


Jorge Torres Hidalgo holds an LL.M. in International and European Law (IES-VUB) and a degree in law from the Autonomous University of Barcelona. He is also qualified as a lawyer in Spain and is currently part of the international trade team of Hogan Lovells' Brussels office. He was formerly a trainee at the Trade Commission of the Spanish Embassy in Morocco and the Energy Charter Secretariat.

The African Union (AU), a union consisting of 54 African States, held an Extraordinary Summit on 11-12 October 2013, to discuss its relationship with the International Criminal Court (ICC or the Court). The meeting took place just weeks before the trial of Kenya’s President Uhuru Kenyatta is scheduled to begin, and was clearly intended to voice discontent and put on hold the ongoing ICC proceedings against Kenyatta as well as his deputy, Vice-President William Ruto. Before the Summit, there were even widespread rumors that the Assembly of the AU would call for a mass withdrawal of African States Parties from the ICC Statute. Eventually, the Assembly did not go that far and took two important, but less controversial decisions. It called for the granting of immunities to Heads of States from prosecutions by international criminal tribunals and requested a deferral of the ICC cases against Kenyatta and Ruto through a resolution adopted by the UN Security Council (UNSC). After providing a background to the Kenya cases, this policy brief aims to evaluate what the position of the EU and its Member States as outspoken supporters of the ICC and the fight against impunity should be, especially given the fact that France and the UK, as permanent UNSC members, could block a UNSC deferral at any time.

Federica Toscano

The aim of this paper is to analyse what is the impact of the second phase of the creation of the Common European Asylum System (CEAS) in the protection of rights of Asylum Seekers in the European Union. The establishment of a CEAS has been always a part of the development of the Area of Freedom, Security and Justice. Its implementation was planned in two phases: the first one, focused on the harmonisation of internal legislation on minimum common standards; the second, based on the result of an evaluation of the effectiveness of the agreed legal instruments, should improve the effectiveness of the protection granted. The five instruments adopted between 2002 and 2005, three Directives, on Qualification, Reception Conditions and Asylum Procedures, and two Regulations, the so-called “Dublin System”, were subjected to an extensive evaluation and modification, which led to the end of the recasting in 2013.

The paper discusses briefly the international obligations concerning the rights of asylum seekers and continues with the presentation of the legal basis of the CEAS and its development, together with the role of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union in asylum matters. The research will then focus on the development in the protection of asylum seekers after the recasting of the legislative instruments mentioned above. The paper will note that the European standards result now improved, especially concerning the treatment of vulnerable people, the quality of the application procedure, the effectiveness of the appeal, the treatment of gender issues in decision concerning procedures and reception. However, it will be also highlighted that Member States maintained a wide margin of appreciation in many fields, which can lead to the compression of important guarantees. This margin concerns, for example, the access to free legal assistance, the definition of the material support to be granted to each applicant for international protection, the access to labour market, the application of the presumptions of the “safety” of a third country.

The paper will therefore stress that the long negotiations that characterised the second phase of the CEAS undoubtedly led to some progress in the protection of Asylum Seekers in the EU. However, some provisions are still in open contrast with the international obligations concerning rights of asylum seekers, while others require to the Member State consider carefully its obligation in the choice of internal policies concerning asylum matters.


Federica Toscano holds a degree in Law from the University of Ferrara, Italy, and a Masters degree in International and European Law from the IES-VUB (Magna cum Laude). She has pluriannual experience in the non-profit sector: she was a member of the International Board of the European Law Students' Association after a career at the local and national levels as project manager, and she interned at the World Youth Alliance Europe. Federica worked also at the European Parliament in Strasbourg and at the District Court of Ferrara.

Modern European Operations: From Phoney Wars to Sickle Cuts.

Mattelaer, A., Biscop, S. (ed.) & Fiott, D. (ed.) 1 Nov 2013 Brussels: Egmont Institute. 5 p. (The State of Defence in Europe: State of Emergency?)

Research output: ResearchCommissioned report

Original languageEnglish
Place of PublicationBrussels
PublisherEgmont Institute
Number of pages5
ISBN (Print)978-90-382-2266-0
StatePublished - 1 Nov 2013

Publication series

NameThe State of Defence in Europe: State of Emergency?