Recent Publications

Ilke Adam
Rea Andrea


The accommodation of Muslim religious practices is an increasingly salient political issue across Western Europe. Hitherto, most research has focused on how states accommodate Muslim religious practices, and sociological scholarship on workplace accommodation is still extremely scarce. This article fills the gap in the extant literature by presenting a qualitative analysis of over 300 requests for religious accommodation in the workplace in Belgium. The authors contend that turning the spotlight from state to workplace accommodation of Muslim religious practices allows the discovery of different answers to the “hows” and the “whys” of minority religious accommodation. Different than state accommodation, workplace accommodation is characterized by three “i”s: it is granted or refused on the basis of instrumental argumentations; it is regulated informally and resolved internally. This article proposes an institutionalist framework adapted to the world of work to explain the specific features of workplace religious accommodation of Muslim religious practices.

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Sarah Demart
Bruno Schoumaker
Marie Godin
Ilke Adam

Dit onderzoek heeft als opzet een socio-demografisch profiel te schetsen van Congolese, Rwandese en Burundese Belgen. Deze opdracht kadert in het verlengde van het onderzoek rond Marokkaanse en Turkse Belgen, dat gepubliceerd werd in 2015. 

Er wonen ongeveer 110.000 Belgische Congolezen, Rwandezen en Burundezen in ons land. Dat maakt van hen de derde grootste groep personen met een migratieachtergrond van buiten de Europese Unie. Toch lijken deze burgers weinig gekend in onze samenleving en lijken ze afwezig in het publieke debat, ondanks de lange gezamenlijke geschie­denis die België met hen deelt. 

Dit onderzoek uit een kwantitatief deel, gebaseerd op een steekproef van 800 personen uit de drie regio’s van ons land, en anderzijds een kwalitatief luik. 

Een uniek portret van onze medeburgers van Afrikaanse origine wordt zo geschetst. Bovendien maakt het onderzoek het mogelijk een beter zicht te krijgen op hun attitudes ten aanzien van de Belgische samenleving en hun land van oorsprong. Ook leert het ons de dynamieken en obstakels van hun integratie beter kennen. 

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Ellen Van Droogenbroeck
Leo Van Hove
Steven Cordemans

Van Droogenbroeck, E., Van Hove, L. and S. Cordemans, Do red prices also work online?: An extension of Puccinelli et al. (2013), Color Research and Application, Vol. 43, Nr. 1, February 2018, p. 110–113.


In a recent article, Puccinelli et al. examine the effect of the color in which prices appear in print flyers on consumers' perceived savings. Puccinelli et al. find that the effect is moderated by gender: unlike female consumers, men think they are being offered a better deal when prices are presented in red than when they are presented in black. The advertisements with prices in red also put men in a more positive state. This note replicates Puccinelli et al.'s main experiment in a different context (online vs. print) and in a different cultural setting (Belgium vs. the USA). In line with Puccinelli et al., we find that men perceive the online store with red prices as offering better value. But, intriguingly, it does not appear to make men feel more positively. One possible explanation is that red prices work differently online.

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Tobias Schumacher
Andreas Marchetti
Thomas Demmelhuber (Eds)

The Routledge Handbook on the European Neighbourhood Policy offers a comprehensive review of the EU’s relations with its Eastern and Southern Neighbourhood. In the chapter “Counter-terrorism cooperation and the European Neighbourhood Policy”, IES’s Dr. Chantal Lavallée and Prof. Christian Kaunert, together with Dr. Sarah Léonard from the VUB’s Vesalius College, examine how the EU has attempted to develop counter-terrorism cooperation with its Eastern and Southern partners and which results have been achieved so far in practice. 

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Adelle Camilla
Biedenkopf Katja
Torney Diarmuid (Eds.)

Dupont, Claire, Sebastian Oberthür and Katja Biedenkopf, Climate Change: Adapting to Evolving Internal and External Dynamics, in: Camilla Adelle, Katja Biedenkopf and Diarmuid Torney (eds.), European Union External Environmental Policy: Rules, Regulation and Governance beyond Borders, London: Palgrave Macmillan 2018, 105-124.

This book considers the environmental policies that the EU employs outside its borders. Using a systematic and coherent approach to cover a range of EU activities, environmental issues, and geographical areas, it charts the EU’s attempts to shape environmental governance beyond its borders. Key questions addressed include: What environmental norms, rules and policies does the EU seek to promote outside its territory? What types of activities does the EU engage in to pursue these objectives? How successful is the EU in achieving its external environmental policy objectives? What factors explain the degree to which the EU attains its goals? The book will be of interest to students and academics as well as practitioners in governments (both inside and outside of the EU), the EU institutions, think tanks, and research institutes.

The indicated chapter zooms in on the different mechanisms through which the EU pursues climate policy effects beyond its own borders. The EU has quite consistently been a major and reasonably influential player in international climate diplomacy and the UN climate negotiations (‘dialogues and negotiations’). Influence in international climate diplomacy has benefitted from the EU providing incentives (‘manipulating utility calculations’) and ‘capacity building’ to developing countries. It thereby altered the incentive structure of the recipients and enabled them to pursue more ambitious climate policy objectives. While EU external climate policy remains closely tied to domestic EU climate policy, further challenges are looming, including Brexit and the US climate policy U-turn under President Trump.

Joachim Koops
Giulia Tercovich

This edited volume provides a comprehensive analysis of European approaches to United Nations peacekeeping by assessing past practice, present obstacles and future potentials related to nine core European countries’ contributions to blue helmet operations. By providing in-depth case studies on Denmark, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Norway, Sweden, The Netherlands and the United Kingdom, this book offers an evaluation of European approaches as well as a wide range of facilitating and constraining factors related to the above mentioned countries’ future involvement in UN peacekeeping. The book places particular emphasis on the recent involvement of European countries in the UN operation in Mali (MINUSMA) and explores to what extent this experience might lead to further marked increases of European supplies of troops and capabilities and thus a broader ‘European return’ to UN peacekeeping. Each chapter offers an up-to-date case study on key countries’ policies, challenges and opportunities for a stronger re-engagement in UN Peacekeeping It provides a comprehensive analysis of the main challenges and concrete ways ahead for overcoming institutional, political, financial and military obstacles (both at European capitals and within the UN system) on the path towards a stronger re-engagement of European troop contributing countries in the field of UN Peacekeeping. Furthermore, each chapter includes a set of policy-relevant recommendations for future ways ahead. The chapters in this book were originally published in International Peacekeeping.

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Eleanor Mateo

Aviation biofuels remain a controversial topic. An analysis of stakeholder views reveals, however, that there is considerable common ground on the two central issues in short to medium term: sustainability and commercialisation. Stakeholders generally agree that sustainability must be based on objective, transparent and clearly defined criteria that demonstrate the environmental advantages of sustainable aviation fuels (SAF) over fossil fuels. The measurement of impacts should use verified life-cycle analyses (LCA) throughout the supply chain. Sustainability standards should be strict, yet they should not be so rigid as to prevent the commercialisation of SAF, and they need to be tightened as the market evolves. For the commercialisation of SAF, the stakeholders reckon that the infrastructure and marketing models already exist: the remaining hurdle is the price gap between conventional fossil fuels and SAF. Active policies that include commercial and regulatory incentives are required to make sustainable aviation fuels competitive, and for the market to take off. 

November 2017
Chantal Lavellee

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Sebastian Oberthür
Lukas Hermwille
Gauri Khandekar
Wolfgang Obergassel

Significant potential exists to accelerate the climate transition by advancing sectoral approaches and institutions in international climate governance. To achieve the Paris Agreement objectives and quicken the urgently needed decarbonisation of our societies and economies, the simultaneous transformation of a wide range of interdependent sectoral systems is required. Each of these systems faces very specific transformation challenges and potentials for international governance. This calls for advancing tailor-made sectoral approaches to reinforce global climate governance, in the context of the further development of both the Paris Agreement and the system of intergovernmental institutions and transnational arrangements, including the increasing number of multistakeholder initiatives. More encompassing sectoral governance can enable a much-needed strengthening of countries’ “nationally determined contributions” (NDCs) on the way to a speedy decarbonisation.

Elke Boers

Building on the analytical tools defined by Kingah, Amaya & Van Langenhove (2016) in the EL-CSID Working Paper 1, this paper assesses the willingness, capacity and acceptance of EU SD policies in the Black Sea Region (BSR). This qualitative mapping looks at science initiatives that aimed to enhance regional cooperation, both in the BSR itself and between those countries and the EU. There has been widespread commitment and willingness from the EU and the BSR to involve in science cooperation projects, and the projects under FP6, FP7 and H2020 did not face acceptance issues from national or regional leaders. However, implementation of the envisaged objectives and Action Plans has been quite often lacking or incomplete due to capacity issues or weak political commitment. Much more needs to be done in this area if the EU and the BS countries want to reach the full potential of the H2020 projects. On the other hand, a broader political framework that shows a clear vision of the EU towards the BSR is lacking, as the Black Sea Synergy (BSS) has been inactive and the Eastern Partnership has been gaining more momentum and thus overshadowed the BSS. Moreover, political tensions in the BSR will push the EU to opt for a more careful approach towards the region, where either all stakeholders will have to be better involved, or some stakeholders should be left out to ensure a better functioning of future projects.