Recent Publications

Marie Lamensch

Abstract: In the autumn of 2016, the CJEU adopted a decision regarding formalism in the context of the exercise of the right to deduct input VAT which does not seem to have attracted the attention of VAT scholars, albeit that in the author’s view it constitutes a major development. In the Barlis case, the CJEU decided that Article 178(a) of the VAT Directive must be interpreted as precluding the national tax authorities from refusing the right to deduct value added tax solely because the taxable person holds an invoice which does not satisfy the conditions required by Article 226(6) and (7) of that directive, where those authorities have available all the necessary information for ascertaining whether the substantive conditions for the exercise of that right are satisfied. While this decision may, at first sight, be seen as a confirmation of the now established principle of ‘substance over form’ in relation to the exercise of the right to deduct, in this article the author highlights that this is the first time that this case-law based principle is being used to waive a clear and unconditional formal requirement provided for under the VAT Directive directly in relation to the exercise of the right to deduct.

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Michael Reiterer

The surprising readiness of Kim Jong-un to re-open lines of communications and to participate in the 2018 PyeongChang Olympics could strengthen President Moon who needs to change course from announcement of policies to their implementation to live up to his promise to provide jobs through income and innovation lead growth with the aim of establishing a just and fair society for all Koreans. Enhanced EU-Korean cooperation could contribute to economic and political stability and security providing substance to the 55 years’ jubilee.

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Tomas Wyns
Martin Porter

Following the 2015 Paris Agreement on climate change all countries around the world will have to implement long-term strategies and policies to achieve net zero greenhouse gas emissions around 2050. Energy and resource intensive industries will hence also be faced with the same challenge.
The emissions from these sectors are known to be ‘difficult’ to mitigate and will require a combination of process, product and business model transformations. The use of technologies, techniques and business models linked to industry 4.0 will be an essential part of this low carbon transition. Furthermore, the public sector will have to play a catalysing role to enable this low carbon industrial revolution to take place.


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Simon Schunz
Sieglinde Gstöhl
Luk Van Langenhove

This introductory article to the special issue on major powers in shared neighbourhoods sets the scenery by introducing the research objectives, situating them in the relevant academic context with references to the literatures on great power dynamics, regionalism and foreign policy analysis. It presents a conceptual framework for the study of ‘major powers’, understood as regional leaders, and their different forms of interaction in shared neighbourhoods, before providing an overview of the key insights of the individual contributions. The article concludes by identifying the main factors explaining the shape of the relationship between major powers in their shared region and outlining a research agenda on comparative neighbourhood policy studies.

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Ilke Adam
Rea Andrea


The accommodation of Muslim religious practices is an increasingly salient political issue across Western Europe. Hitherto, most research has focused on how states accommodate Muslim religious practices, and sociological scholarship on workplace accommodation is still extremely scarce. This article fills the gap in the extant literature by presenting a qualitative analysis of over 300 requests for religious accommodation in the workplace in Belgium. The authors contend that turning the spotlight from state to workplace accommodation of Muslim religious practices allows the discovery of different answers to the “hows” and the “whys” of minority religious accommodation. Different than state accommodation, workplace accommodation is characterized by three “i”s: it is granted or refused on the basis of instrumental argumentations; it is regulated informally and resolved internally. This article proposes an institutionalist framework adapted to the world of work to explain the specific features of workplace religious accommodation of Muslim religious practices.

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Sarah Demart
Bruno Schoumaker
Marie Godin
Ilke Adam

Dit onderzoek heeft als opzet een socio-demografisch profiel te schetsen van Congolese, Rwandese en Burundese Belgen. Deze opdracht kadert in het verlengde van het onderzoek rond Marokkaanse en Turkse Belgen, dat gepubliceerd werd in 2015. 

Er wonen ongeveer 110.000 Belgische Congolezen, Rwandezen en Burundezen in ons land. Dat maakt van hen de derde grootste groep personen met een migratieachtergrond van buiten de Europese Unie. Toch lijken deze burgers weinig gekend in onze samenleving en lijken ze afwezig in het publieke debat, ondanks de lange gezamenlijke geschie­denis die België met hen deelt. 

Dit onderzoek uit een kwantitatief deel, gebaseerd op een steekproef van 800 personen uit de drie regio’s van ons land, en anderzijds een kwalitatief luik. 

Een uniek portret van onze medeburgers van Afrikaanse origine wordt zo geschetst. Bovendien maakt het onderzoek het mogelijk een beter zicht te krijgen op hun attitudes ten aanzien van de Belgische samenleving en hun land van oorsprong. Ook leert het ons de dynamieken en obstakels van hun integratie beter kennen. 

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Ellen Van Droogenbroeck
Leo Van Hove
Steven Cordemans

Van Droogenbroeck, E., Van Hove, L. and S. Cordemans, Do red prices also work online?: An extension of Puccinelli et al. (2013), Color Research and Application, Vol. 43, Nr. 1, February 2018, p. 110–113.


In a recent article, Puccinelli et al. examine the effect of the color in which prices appear in print flyers on consumers' perceived savings. Puccinelli et al. find that the effect is moderated by gender: unlike female consumers, men think they are being offered a better deal when prices are presented in red than when they are presented in black. The advertisements with prices in red also put men in a more positive state. This note replicates Puccinelli et al.'s main experiment in a different context (online vs. print) and in a different cultural setting (Belgium vs. the USA). In line with Puccinelli et al., we find that men perceive the online store with red prices as offering better value. But, intriguingly, it does not appear to make men feel more positively. One possible explanation is that red prices work differently online.

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Tobias Schumacher
Andreas Marchetti
Thomas Demmelhuber (Eds)

The Routledge Handbook on the European Neighbourhood Policy offers a comprehensive review of the EU’s relations with its Eastern and Southern Neighbourhood. In the chapter “Counter-terrorism cooperation and the European Neighbourhood Policy”, IES’s Dr. Chantal Lavallée and Prof. Christian Kaunert, together with Dr. Sarah Léonard from the VUB’s Vesalius College, examine how the EU has attempted to develop counter-terrorism cooperation with its Eastern and Southern partners and which results have been achieved so far in practice. 

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Adelle Camilla
Biedenkopf Katja
Torney Diarmuid (Eds.)

Dupont, Claire, Sebastian Oberthür and Katja Biedenkopf, Climate Change: Adapting to Evolving Internal and External Dynamics, in: Camilla Adelle, Katja Biedenkopf and Diarmuid Torney (eds.), European Union External Environmental Policy: Rules, Regulation and Governance beyond Borders, London: Palgrave Macmillan 2018, 105-124.

This book considers the environmental policies that the EU employs outside its borders. Using a systematic and coherent approach to cover a range of EU activities, environmental issues, and geographical areas, it charts the EU’s attempts to shape environmental governance beyond its borders. Key questions addressed include: What environmental norms, rules and policies does the EU seek to promote outside its territory? What types of activities does the EU engage in to pursue these objectives? How successful is the EU in achieving its external environmental policy objectives? What factors explain the degree to which the EU attains its goals? The book will be of interest to students and academics as well as practitioners in governments (both inside and outside of the EU), the EU institutions, think tanks, and research institutes.

The indicated chapter zooms in on the different mechanisms through which the EU pursues climate policy effects beyond its own borders. The EU has quite consistently been a major and reasonably influential player in international climate diplomacy and the UN climate negotiations (‘dialogues and negotiations’). Influence in international climate diplomacy has benefitted from the EU providing incentives (‘manipulating utility calculations’) and ‘capacity building’ to developing countries. It thereby altered the incentive structure of the recipients and enabled them to pursue more ambitious climate policy objectives. While EU external climate policy remains closely tied to domestic EU climate policy, further challenges are looming, including Brexit and the US climate policy U-turn under President Trump.

Joachim Koops
Giulia Tercovich

This edited volume provides a comprehensive analysis of European approaches to United Nations peacekeeping by assessing past practice, present obstacles and future potentials related to nine core European countries’ contributions to blue helmet operations. By providing in-depth case studies on Denmark, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Norway, Sweden, The Netherlands and the United Kingdom, this book offers an evaluation of European approaches as well as a wide range of facilitating and constraining factors related to the above mentioned countries’ future involvement in UN peacekeeping. The book places particular emphasis on the recent involvement of European countries in the UN operation in Mali (MINUSMA) and explores to what extent this experience might lead to further marked increases of European supplies of troops and capabilities and thus a broader ‘European return’ to UN peacekeeping. Each chapter offers an up-to-date case study on key countries’ policies, challenges and opportunities for a stronger re-engagement in UN Peacekeeping It provides a comprehensive analysis of the main challenges and concrete ways ahead for overcoming institutional, political, financial and military obstacles (both at European capitals and within the UN system) on the path towards a stronger re-engagement of European troop contributing countries in the field of UN Peacekeeping. Furthermore, each chapter includes a set of policy-relevant recommendations for future ways ahead. The chapters in this book were originally published in International Peacekeeping.

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